Odisha is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India. It is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west, and Andhra Pradesh to the south. It is the 9th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. It is also the 3rd most populous state of India in terms of tribal population.The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha. The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, and consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. April 1 is celebrated as Odisha Day (utkal divas). The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.
Kalinga has been mentioned in ancient texts like Mahabharata, Vayu Purana and Mahagovinda Suttanta. The Sabar people of Odisha have also been mentioned in the Mahabharata. Baudhayana mentions Kalinga as not yet being influenced by Vedic traditions, implying it followed mostly tribal traditions.
Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty conquered Kalinga in the bloody Kalinga War in 261 BCE, which was the eighth year of his reign. By c. 150 CE, emperor Kharavela, who was possibly a contemporary of Demetrius I of Bactria, conquered a major part of the Indian sub-continent. Kharavela was a Jain ruler. He also built the monastery atop the Udayagiri hill.
Later, the kings of the Somavamsi dynasty began to unite the region. Yayati II is supposed to have built the Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar. Notable rulers of the dynasty were Anantavarman Chodaganga, who began construction on the present-day Jagannath Temple in Puri, and Narasimhadeva I, who constructed the Konark temple.
Orissa was the first subah added to Akbar's fifteen by Shah Jahan. It had Cuttack as seat and bordered Bihar, Bengal and Golconda subahs as well as the remaining independent and tributary chiefs. From 1717, the Orissa and Bijar governors were reduced to deputies of the Nawab of the pseudo-autonomous Bengal Subah.
The British had occupied the Northern Circars, comprising the southern coast of Odisha, as a result of the 2nd Carnatic War by 1760, and incorporated them into the Madras Presidency gradually. In 1803, the British ousted the Marathas from the Puri-Cuttack region of Odisha during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. The northern and western districts of Odisha were incorporated into the Bengal Presidency.
On 1 April 1936, Bihar and Orissa were split into separate provinces. The new province of Orissa came into existence on a linguistic basis during the British rule in India, with Sir John Austen Hubback as the first governor. Following India's independence, on 15 August 1947, 27 princely states signed the document to join Orissa.
Language And Culture
Oriya(Odia) is the principal and regional language of Odisha (Orissa). Belonging to the Aryan family of languages, it is closely related to Assamese, Bengali and Maithili. Oriya is to be used for all or any of the official purposes of the State of Odisha.
Odisha has a culinary tradition spanning centuries. The kitchen of the Jagannath Temple, Puri is reputed to be the largest in the world.Odissi (Orissi) dance and music are classical art forms. Odissi is the oldest surviving dance form in India on the basis of archaeological evidence. The variety of dances includes Ghumura Dance, Chhau dance, Mahari dance, and Gotipua.
Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor)
Indian roller (Coracias benghalensis)
Asoka (Saraca asoca)
Indian fig tree (Ficus racemosa)
1.Konark Sun Temple
4.Nandankanan Zoological Park
How to Reach
Regular flights landing at the only major airport of the city namely Biju Patnaik Airport connect it to all the major cities of the country such as Calcutta, Delhi, Chennai, Mumbai, Vishakhapatnam, Hyderabad and Raipur.
The major railhead is in the state capital known as Bhubaneswar Railway station and is served by major train networks that connect it to other parts of the state as well as the country. Rajdhani, Coromondal Express, Konarak Express are some of the famous trains that serve this station.
Odisha (Orissa) is well connected to its neighbouring states through a good road network.